(X £dw>oru1?i

t*oru lapehA




Thomas E. Jeffrey Lisa Gitelman Gregory Jankunis David W. Hutchings Leslie Fields

Theresa M. Collins Gregory Field Aldo E. Salerno Karen A. Detig Lorie Stock

Robert Rosenberg Director and Editor


Rutgers, The State University Of New Jersey National Park Service, Edison National Historic Site New Jersey Historical Commission Smithsonian Institution

University Publications of America Bethesda, MD 1999

Edison signature used '

ermlsslon of McOmw-Edlson Company

Thomas A. Edison Papers at

Rutgers, The State University endorsed by

National Historical Publications and Records Commission 18 June 1981

Copyright © 1999 by Rutgers, The State University

All rights reserved. No part of this publication including any portion of the guide mid index or of the microfilm may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form by any means graphic, electronic, mechanical, or chemical, includingphotocopying, recordingor taping, or information storage and retrieval systems— witliout written permission of Rutgers, The State University, New Brunswick, New Jersey.

The original documents hi this edition are from the archives at the Edison National Historic Site at West Orange, New Jersey.

ISBN 0-89093-703-6


Robert A. Rosenberg Director and Editor

Thomas E. Jeffrey Associate Director and Coeditor

Paul B. Israel

Managing Editor, Book Edition Helen Endick

Assistant Director for Administration

Associate Editors Theresa M. Collins Lisa Gitelman Keith A. Nier

Research Associates

Gregory Jankunis Lorie Stock

Assistant Editors Louis Carlat Aldo E. Salerno

Secretary Grace Kurkowski

Amy Cohen Bethany Jankunis Laura Konrad Vishal Nayak

Student Assistants

Jessica Rosenberg Stacey Saelg Wojtek Szymkowiak Matthew Wosniak


Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey

Francis L. Lawrence Joseph J. Seneca Richard F. Foley David M. Oshinsky New Jersey Historical Commission Howard L. Green

National Park Service John Maounis Maryanne Gerbauckas Roger Durham George Tselos Smithsonian Institution Bernard Finn Arthur P. Molella


James Brittain, Georgia Institute of Technology R. Frank Colson, University of Southampton Louis Galambos, Johns Hopkins University Susan Hockey, University of Alberta Thomas Parke Hughes, University of Pemisylvania Peter Robinson, Oxford University

Philip Scranton, Georgia Institute of Technology/Hagley Museum and Library Merritt Roe Smith, Massachusetts Institute of Technology


PRIVATE FOUNDATIONS The Alfred P. Sloan Foundation Charles Edison Fund The Hyde and Watson Foundation National Trust for the Humanities Geraldine R. Dodge Foundation

PUBLIC FOUNDATIONS National Science Foundation National Endowment for the Humanities

National Historical Publications and Records Commission


Alabama Power Company



Atlantic Electric

Association of Edison Illuminating Companies

Battelie Memorial Institute The Boston Edison Foundation Cabot Corporation Foundation, Inc. Carolina Power & Light Company Consolidated Edison Company of New York, Inc.

Consumers Power Company Cooper Industries Corning Incorporated Duke Power Company Entergy Corporation (Middle South Electric System)

Exxon Corporation

Florida Power & Light Company

General Electric Foundation

Gould Inc. Foundation

Gulf States Utilities Company

David and Nina Heitz

Hess Foundation, Inc.

Idaho Power Company

IMO Industries

International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers

Mr. and Mrs. Stanley H. Katz Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd. Midwest Resources, Inc.

Minnesota Power New Jersey Bell New York State Electric & Gas Corporation

Nortli American Philips Corporation Philadelphia Electric Company Philips Lighting B.V.

Public Service Electric and Gas Company

RCA Corporation

Robert Bosch GmbH

Rochester Gas and Electric Corporation

San Diego Gas and Electric

Savaiumh Electric and Power Company

Schering-Plough Foundation

Texas Utilities Company

Thomas & Betts Corporation

Thomson Grand Public

Transamerica Delaval Inc.

Westinghouse Foundation Wisconsin Public Service Corporation

A Note on the Sources

The pages which have been filmed are the best copies available. Every technical effort possible has been made to ensure legibility.


Reel duplication of the whole or of any part of this film is prohibited. In lieu of transcripts, however, enlarged photocopies of selected items contained on these reels may be made in order to facilitate research.

1907. Cement House (D-07-07)

This folder contains correspondence relating to the widely publicized development of Edison's poured concrete house. Most of the material consists of unsolicited inquiries regarding the unique nature, quick construction, and low cost of the projected house. Also included is correspondence with journalists seeking information and with paint companies supplying tints for the cement. There are a few letters from the manufacturer and philanthropist, Henry Phipps, who expressed an interest in Edison's progress. Many of the items contain Edison marginalia, usually indicating that a prepared circular be sent in response.

Less than 10 percent of the documents have been selected. With the exception of a few samples, unsolicited inquiries have not been selected.

Related material in the collections of the Edison National Historic Site includes The Housing Handbook by W. Thompson (London, 1903), inscribed to Edison in 1907 and containing Edison marginalia throughout.

In Re #91.

Hay 21, 1907,



Thomas A. Edison, Esq., Orange, H. J.

Dear Sir:


According to the arrangement when we were last at your laboratory, we are sending you under separate cover drawings of the four elevations of the concrete house.

The model can be made either the exact size of the drawings o.r twice the size, according to your desire. The lettered scale of of an inch equals one foot".,, means that three quarters of an inch on our drawings would equal one foot on the large house that you would ultimately build, and does not refer to the scale of the model.

The front elevation has been drawn in detail, but as the side elevations and rear elevation are simply a repetition of the different features of ornament that appear on the front , we have not drawn these out completely, but have simply indicated them in outline. .

If your modeler needs any further drawings we would be glad to make them, or if he wants verbal explanations we would gladly go out to Orange to talk the thing over.

_ - . :: t


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Hr. Ihomas A. Edison,

Orange, IT, J.

Bear Sirs-

Begarding yoi houses, yoxi are report^ as follows:

"Of bourse L house. It iW^riia: one the ri

kind of oono l&te, asu with twisted ■EroiT'ri^ tio pro duo t The^ooi

and has huilt a num§er""o:

Hew Xork, Ootoher 22, 1907. ^ sl/tT- \\!f



- - 7

:ea as saying (intfce BU X. Globed ’~XxZ-*r Jf

saying (in

C pvut- 'V-fc-'**-'-

IB the right ^ ies it properly A\ and mpkea /an artis-

_ *C» i


Law-va^ J C»»*K wo

- -f oonorete residences, anA-far

f^Tn^fel ^

oonstruoti^fe^^^UM^ie Edison^md of oement ex- At Haworth,’ H, J, , where we are operating, the company owning the bulk of the land is anxious to develop oonorete construction for working-men’s homes and otherwise. We will be glad to be informed at onoe


©eawkrs Bwbubin® Matshia^s

as to the terms upon which we oan use your invention, and as to further praotioal details about it.

We send you herewith photograph repro- duotions of two of the oonorete houses built by ... us at Haworth for the Franklin Society. of Hew York. There are others. M early reply will be appreciated by

Yours very truly,

Secretary- Treasurer.

In Re #

Thomas A. .Edison, Esq.,

Orange, If. J. t ^ - tt w

Dear 3ir: l

iVe copy below a letter just received from the scientific American, f/e will be very glad to furnish them with the drawings they ask for and write to know if you could give us some facts that might add to the interest of the article.

"Messrs. Mann & HacJTeille, Oct. 22-07.


It is asserted in the daily press that vou are designing some concrete houses for Thomas A. Edison, which are to be built in a very short time. This sub¬ ject is one which both the Editor of the "scientific American and of "American Homes and Gardens" are in¬ terested in, and we, therefore, ask whether it is not possible to obtain from you plans of the new structures as well as data for an article. Naturally full credit will he given to the architects of the houses.

Thanking you for whatever courtesy you may extend to us, we are

Eaithfully yours,

Kunn & Co. "

Yours very truly,

eastkAjN ob’P’ic 2 BROADWAY,

_ THE ^

Cement Era



^ Ivt-o-vCt- o— rLt - ,V <5— -f

U^t-W- 1— t—

» J~~^. •'fa

Iwriting to ask if it will be convert-

(Les-vs-t. rK~y. Xc^~t fe-wf' ii.* *<- eCCwCL^r *£T

this or gext week, in order to talk to you regarding


and specification and also moulds. We would/like to use a very complete descriptive article in) the CEMENT ERA. I enclose stamped envelope for reply and trust that I may have the pleasure of calling upon you.

Yours very truly .

Eastern Manage ' THE CEMENT ERA

Mr Thomas A Edison Orange N J


IVEiller R.eese Hutchison


SUITE 0035



Referring to our interview with you relative to t:

yi reducer {-as for cer.er.t burning, we beg to send enc-lo calculation shewing the thermo chemical conditions.

If you desire any further infomstion, we will he to send you sane.

Yours sincerely,





The temperature of the coal dust flams was determined and found to he not higher than 2150 degrees B. The clinkering temperature 'in the cement kiln is 2700 0. The increase of temperature required is furnished by the heat, of combination.

The combustion products of producer gas of average composition

( vol |||

14.12 0 0 20 ,23 Hj. 1.59 0 H41 9.06 0 0 55.00 H

ft.- 2036 B.T.U. per lb.

combine during the burning process with 1251 lbs. of 0 Oa , and 151 lbs. of water for every ton of clinkers.

Assuming an initial telperature of , and oonsidnraing that iaSi IDS. of gas are generating 1962 X 2036 equal 399400 B.T.U. the maximum temperature which ws can get with the mixture of the products of combustion and the t! 0 A and water from the crude mass is as follows!

t = 2100° B

972 ( 8.3 + 0.00367 t ) -W15 .27 ,

44 ^28 *

224 ( 761 + 0.00328 t )


and t* + 4248 t = 6420560 Hence we have t = 1150° C

Thence we see that the producer gas flame is at least cf the same temperature as the coal dust flame. We have not considered the preheating of the combustion air in any of these cases, talcing both under exactly the same conditions. The clinker leaves the furnace at about 2160° C, the coal drum at 212


52 J

( 6.8 + 0.0006 t ) +


Therefore one ton of clinker yields to the cooling dm and to the cooling air current

1000 x 0.2 x 1100 =: 83000 B.T.U,

After deducting the losses which amount to about 40$, ; v.a see that we have at our disposal 528000 Calorie.

Now the quantity of air required for burning one ton of clinker .is about 2750 lbs., arid its specif io heat under these con¬ ditions is 0.246 '

Therefore the waste heat of the clinker at our dispoaal if fully utilized, will increase the temperature ' of 'the combustion air 810° F.

which, as we know is sufficient to start the chemical reaction and to cause the c lingering of the cement mass .

It has to be also considered that the producer, gas fire works with about 1/5 of the amount of air as compared to the coal- dust firing, a point which must not be overlooked, in the construction of such plants, .

The thermo chemical calculation in- practical experiments: show that . 100 lbs. of blinker can. be! produced by ’converting; 18 lbs, of. coal of 13680 B.T.U.into gas.

If you are interested we will be pleased to send you, detail', calculation for these -figures. ... ,

JTimfam (Hcntnt^

Superintending Architect's Department.


-8 NOV 1907 -/.9d.

Dear Sir,

My attention has heen d^awn to the aooount given by you at the meeting of the American Eleotro-Chemioal Sooiety on 18th October, 1907, of an inversion which you think will enable dwellings for workmen and oths^s of that class to be erected

■ing iron mouldB and filling them

toil has ereoted under my wellings for workmen and are ■struotlon. I should you would be so kind as to Particulars of the system rto the American Eleotro-Chemioal

very oheaply by means of pre; with concrete.

The London Counf supervision a great number interested in aheap buildi therefore bp greatly obligfjj furnish me with any publish which you explained recent 1 2

Sooiety. ,


, Dear Sir,

Yours faithfully.

Superintending Architect.

Thomas A.Edison, Esq., G-lenmoat,

Llewellyn Park,

Robertson Art Tile Co.



TRENTON, N. ,Tm liOV. 12,(^1907.

Mr. Thomas A. Edison, Orange,


£u* .4-oe^v1 ex.&


y c

Bear Sir: -

steol moulds, of which I^ia\ illustrations

U> fcZ&t C(ac.

Permit me to addness^you in refergn^ to ^te/'CV'n

project of erecting huildrajjja^f ^cor^cr^e w’^ten^

I Jiave seen some, accounts' an<j<'* to tful Cm k*> 5

i in various newspapers. /

I have taken some interest in the mural treat¬ ment of exterior and interior walls of such buildings for years and my enthusiasm for this work may furnish my excuse for making hold enough to address you.

While the constructive qualities of a concrete building cannot he questioned, it must he admitted that the natural color of the cement has never heen found satis¬ factory, especially as the cement is subject to certain discolorations caused by occasional dampness. The efforts to relieve a building in a decorative sense by, sculpture or plastic ornament has not met with success on account of the inability to fasten them securely to the surface and it has been admitted by the best Architects that the concrete house of the future must be decorated in a polychrome manner.

I have done

very satisfactory work by

Robertson Art Tile Oo.


T . A. J*< . fa . Trenton, N. ,T..

using a vitreous ceramic mosaic for the veneering of walls and I heg to send several pamphlets which show wall treatment of exteriors and interiors. The advantages of a vitreous ceramic mosaic are its cheapness, great durability and absolute iraperviousness as far as water absorption is concerned.

So far I have applied this mosaic after the wall has been constructed, but it seems to me that the mosaic may be applied in friezes or panels during the construction of a building, especially if a dorfect mould to which the mosaic is applied, is obtainable. This latter is apparently the case in your project.

Should you think it worth while to confer with me on the subject, I shall be pleased to meet you or who ever you would refer me to, if you will be so kind as to let me know time and place.

Thanking you for any kind consideration you give these matters, I remain,

Yours very truly,





Mr. Thomas A, Edison,


Dear Sir:-

I read with absorl appearing in the "Hew Yorki relating to your plans for <

W a.

Orange, H. i_jj£ *1^ ^

Y~ J__

ifessir-^So tdH*

/<7tA^ C!«» - -

(signing cast-iron-moulds, J

hy use of which concrete houses may he molded. ,

yjbcSvdL} ijg- tcCnA iT&o b-fd in includes^peveral memhers

Our organization 3

several memoers /> a

personally -not

/fllU -%SeSS»W«.« WA-

ana the Executives! .evfft-e okiw-k-^ f

delight for years, -

who have been privileged to to^iw yo^ only in this country, but inCftpada, ,

of our company have followed you eagerly and with .

And now comes this fy>v&l and practical method

We predict that shortly your scheme will -J--

revolutionize the method of building homeaj^eap eo^Lal ly

those of the "good common peopJp(^*"^ /J tf ac^ ^

voi**, lu*. «

The nature of our products exacts of us


and in methods

i in the designing of patterns of moulding, for all of our castings are hollow- with equal metal lineB, and must withstand the strain of constantly varying temperatures.

jpRIGMpIATORrO.ttPAW Mr. Thomas B. Edison- #2

Thus I feel that we are in a sense qualified to appreciate the value and importance of your proposed method of casting a one-piece- house.

Among the refinements which shall mark the details of construction of this model house, such as the hath- tubs, stairs, etc.,- may I submit for your favorable consideration, the feasibility of providing either a series of vertical recesses in the side walls of the rooms- or a corresponding number of small vertical flues or holes in the side walls:- these grooves or flues to receive the flow and return piping of a steam or hot water heating system, and thus conceal them from view, whereas now - in most houses - the flow and return pipes are projected into the room and Eire very unsatisfactory.

It may be you have this in mind- and perhaps in addition^ the designing of a radiator of unusual form that will also be set - flush- (as it were) - in the wall, with but its iniide surface or room surface exposed.

Mr. Thomas A. Edison- #5

I would esteem it greatly if you would kindly say if this series of recesses or flues are- in your judgment - prac¬ tical- and desirable.

7fl7 Fifth Avenue,

New York, Nov. 13th, 1907.

My dear Mr Edisoni-

Many thanks for your kind attentions yesterday to my friends and myself. We enjoyed very much seeing you, and learning more of the good work you have in hand in respect to concrete construction.

If it is proper for us to make a suggestion we would beg to say that wo wish the liberal experiment you are about to make were done on a smaller scale, and a simpler house, so as to save you money, and a good deal of care and trouble as well, and to aid the good cause which you especially, and the rest of us, have at heart.

Please pardon the suggestion we have made, and believe me.

Yours sincerely,


iX<w VUU $

^ ct LUQidlck (si. cwi est-v^err Tnotf'

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<^\\ ■' Nov. 16th, 1907.

Mr. Thomas A. Edison, <=*~~

c/o Edison Portland Cement Oo.,^^ ^ \

Stewart sville, N. J. Au* 5,

■Dear Sir:- ouu-^^r'jX- 2

The enclosed clipping has heBrT’floating around in'I'T V\.jrv<- 04 i <U-v^ Q & *'**‘‘1 different journals and I take the liberty of addre s s iji h.„V ou on)

CfjO «!>/. £tT\

the subject of concrete mixers in connection herewith. I seU (J , WijKWw <S~c-

the name of Henry Phipps, concerned in the .matter and would like to call your attention to the fact that Mr. Phipps, ^ through his agent, Mr. Naylor, purchased from me under date of October 1902, one No- 2-1/2 Smith Concrete Mixer on truck with

Stewart sville, N. J.

different journals i

boiler and engine complete.

i enclosing you under separate cover.

Mr. Naylor has used this <

all of Mr. Phipps' Const¬

ruction work in and around this city and has put in thousands and thousands of yards of concrete with very little expense for repairs on the same, and under date of October 14th, 1903, he says the following in regard to the machine, viz: "I take great pleasure in recommending the Smith Mixer for concrete

work. I have laid about 5000-yards of concrete with this mixer in the last three months and by having had these experiences with the Mixer X can cheerfully say that it is THE BEST MIXER THAT CAN BE BOUGHT."

He is just as enthusiastic to-day about the maohine and the advantages of owning it. I therefore am sanding you a

Thomas A. Edison, . . . . .


°°py of our catalogue, together with a hook containing copies of a number of letters received from persons who are using the machine and would like very much to have you look up the Smith Mixer and it's record when the time comes.

Thanking you in advance for any reply and hoping to hear from you favorably, I remain,





Henry Phipps and Other Rich , Men May Erect a Town i ... : Near New York.

Scientific American

™» /

jvn/WiV sc co/ m/a

" 16, 1907.


Mr. Thomas A. Edison,

West Orange, N. J.

Dear Sir:--

I am today sending you, i marked copy of the Scientific Americas "Concrete Houses", that is the outcome of the interview you gave r some ten days ago, appears.

Trusting that this article nysets with your approval, I f Very respectfully yours,

pder separate cover, , i in which the article on


VVrK.V/iNtJERBICr. Preside C. FELLOWES . Secretary, «J.H. BRADFORD. TVrnsur.

E cdWey* ISUANfD jockey* clt/b, WnfDSDR -ARCADE,


* fc.#

November 16th, 1907.

Thomas A. Edison, Esq.,

Dear Sir


Orange, IT . J. n


*■^*1 1

, xCC

I have read in the papers wj.th. vepr great ^.ntgjgegt

the accounts of the experiments you have been. conducting in the I a ^ray«' ctftCKT £A*.vre.v ■**.£'

building of houses of concrete. "* We are contemplating the w


erection of some new stables at oun race trfcck at Sheepshead,

V) oU.m e«» cv. S’ts-vv*^ e*.

with concrete. OUr only.

iurtC l.-*1—*

anxiety is lest it might prove damp, perhaps sweaty, and not /■

CMtAoT f*'£

altogether suitable and healthy for race houses. < I appre->-~-Vl,

U t^e 4

ciate the fact that as an entire stranger -go you perponally^I^ ( V

have no claim upon your very valuable time., but at youn conveni ^

Aut uur. C-ive~ <* <8 * *

to soine one compejient to advise me

em it a very great favor. _ Yhur

ence, if you could refer me in this matter I should esti

opinion as to a stable built of concrete being thoijtfughly dry would mean very much.

Yours truly,


Robertson Art Tire Co.


trkxtox, n. .t., Nov. 20, 1907

Mr. Thomas A. Edison,

Orange, N.J.

Dear Sir: -

We bee to acknowledge receipt of your esteemed favor of the 18th and shall await your further pleasure in the matter of applying decorative tile to cement houses.

The writer shall be at your disposal whenever you wish to take the matter up > and hopes to be able to assist you.

Thanking you for your kind consideration, we


Yours very 'truly,


Thomas A. Edison, Esq.,

Edison Laboratory,

Orarage, k. J.

Dear Mr. Edison: (~~l

I beg to return herewith the Phipps matter which you were kind enough to let me have on Monday afternoon.

I would say that I have written a long letter to Mr. Pranks and sent him some of the material, with the object and in the hope of helping along the model cement village of the future.

I should be greatly obliged if j.fr. Randolph could return to me for Mr. Pranks the letter from Mr. Phipps to Mr. Pranks which I sent you about ten days ago. Mr. Pranks wishes to keep this for his files.

Yours truly,

Kovember 20, 1907.


Wall System’/ TbUILD1N6 BLOCKS J

Mom amKimmiiK


.November 30, 1907.

Mr. Thomas A. Edison, SirfO Cwcn«l«

Orange, New Jersey* w T^0 T*

u* Vu.o-£>. tyKt! VaCJCv'wJ^1*

near Sir— (prv«w-* .

As the manager of the 'above company and from the fact that I have made a close study' of "concrete In all its phases and possibilities, X have read with a great deal of interest accounts of the work you are doing along this part¬ icular line of business, and particularly have I been in¬ terested in your patent for making a house complete in a simgle mold, monolithic construction and I would like to ask how you purpose keeping out the moisture.

It has been my experience in working with concrete as a Building material that the moisture feature and the appearence have been the two most important features as- well as the most difficult to attain.

Yfe have here in Cleveland one of the most com¬ pletely equipped and largest concrete factories in the country making all kinds of ooncrete work necessary to go in any style of Building and we are also closely . allied with a firm doing the most extensive reinforced concrete work in the country. We are operating under what t is known- as the two piece system with which you are no doubt familiar and which to my mind is the only system that permits of the entire exclusion of all moisture from the Inside walls.

As stated above, from reading accounts of your work in this line, my curiosity has been aroused as to just what you expect to get in the appearance of your Building and more particularly hbwt you propose to counteract the moisture feature. The thought struck me that in answering my request for inform¬ ation in this regard, I might in turn be able to give you some points that woiild be valuable for you as you know that concrete is a onmparitively new proposition to all of us and I am at all times anxlouB to learn all that is possible to be learned, to improve the manufacturing and construction and I have no doubt you take .the same view X do.


Hover, ber SO, 190V.

Mr. Thomas A. Edison— #3.

Hoping that I may be able to hear firm you along the lines as per above request,

Yours ver/ truly,

The Cuyahoga Concrete sime Oo. By—

Secretary ftTreasurer.

In the evolution of nan adornment comes last. Hature begins with small things and works up to man, and so in building these houses, let us begin on the simplest and cheapest plan.

In my experience in iron manufacturing, it was the rule that big concerns, i. e., thOBe that sprung into life in large size, failed. It was the little manufacturer that became a Carnegie.

I am anxious to see your work demonstrated, however oraull the house may bo so that it is suitable for ooeupanoy. I fully appreciate what yon are doing, and am most eager for the best results.

The subject is a large one, and if you can spare the time for Mr. Atterbury, Mr, Gordon and Mr. Maok to see you and consult, I shall be muoh gratified.

There is an unexpended stun of §200,000.00 of the Phipps Tenement Fund which I would like to use, if the Board approves, in oopying houses that have proved themselves to be the kind we want. Later on we can build for the better wage earner.

My associates may suggest something that may be useful, of course bearing in mind your idea of the steel mouldB, which is most valuable.

I enolose herewith a letter from Mr.

C. ilayo of Milwaukee. I do not know whether it would interest yon to begin a correspondence with him, or if you would tell me if there is any answer you would oare to have me make to him.

If you can go into the subjeot with my friends, will you kindly appoint a time that would be oon-


venient to you, and oblige.

Yours very truly



Thos. A. Edison, Esq. ,

Orange, Hew Jersey.



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had resulted in a systematic rheumatio contagion to the inmates of the house who in turn performed the kitohen service.

Sow this condition is not inherent in the nature of con¬ crete, hut it does result from a lack of ventilation, coupled with dampness, and it is to this phase of the subject that I thought I

of 3lmwa: loari of (Hontrol of f»tatp ilnstituttona

(Edison) (2)

might he permitted to call attention. My experience is that the , capillary attraction in concrete walls is immense. So that it seems to me that the foundations should he provided with a damp-proof course, and the exterior surface of the walls helow the ground line should he well coated with dehydratine, or better damp-resisting coat¬ ings. Then the exterior walls will also need treatment to prevent rain from saturating the walls, The inside also should he coated with dehydratine, over which a finish of oork carpet, Bultahly glued in place and decorated, would form a good non-conducting surface.

The next important step would he the floor treatment. Eor kitchens, sculleries, baths, toilets, rear halls, closets, etc., a finely- troweled oement floor will surely suffice. Treated with oil and par¬ affin, polished, such a floor need not he unsanitary if only the cellar beneath is dry and warm in winter, which it naturally will he from the wanning apparatus located there, and during summer months open windows in both the lower and upper apartments will prevent Berious dampness, hut the top surface should he treated as suggested to prevent absorption. The balance of floors, those in hall, li¬ brary and general living rooms could well he finished with a cement or tile border and a polished, hard wood center, though a cemented- over-all floor with heavy rugs reaching well to all the walls would surely he an efficient and esthetic*! treatment that would satisfy the most fastidious.

A oement house thus treated would not only he strictly fireproof, hut sanitary and healthful throughout, and I .h.n he

of Soma: Hoarii of Qlootrol of Sootitittions

(Edison) (3)

glad when such become the rule, not only in New York City hut through¬ out the land, for I believe the fire hazard will he greatly reduoed as well as the death-rate which now obtains in the congested tene¬ ment environments, where not only the walls and floors become unsan¬ itary but the very atmosphere becomes pointed by the foul eminations from the living cesspool-like habitations.

In all probability the above from ray pen is perfeotly su¬ perfluous as your architects have in all probability canvassed all these points; still I am constrained to send you this just to show you that there are professional men who are not only watching you, but one intensely interested as well.

Wishing you abundant success, I am,

Very truly yours,





Mr. Thomas A, Eaison^j Orange, I. J.

Dear Sir:-

As a part of the

whioh you have possibly heard, there has been installed on the eleventh floor of the Brunwick Building, 25th Street and Fifth Avenue, a permanent exhibition of the adaptations of Portland Oement to building constructions and allied industries. While the exhibition is not yet oomplete, it never¬ theless represents the industry in a very thorough manner ana 1 think you will be very much interested in what is shown there. On Wednesday next, the 11th last., we are going to have as special visitors, member of the Amerioan Association of Portland Cement Manufacturers who will be in session in Hew York On that aey. They will visit our rooms between three and six fw MV' 1 want to especially invite you and your friends to visit our exhi¬ bition on that day. You will find much to interest you there and it should be of interest to you also to meet the makers of Portland oement and the member s of our